DISPLACEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CITY, EMERGENCY TERRITORY
By: Haydée Beltrán Urán
Siciologist and Urban Planing
"Que tiempo aquel
de la clepsidra.
Que tiempo hoy
el de la maquina.
Que tiempo aquel
el de la "libertad".
Que tiempo hoy
el de la norma.
Que tiempo aquel
el del placer.
Que tiempo hoy
el del prejuicio.
Que tiempo aquel
Que tiempo hoy
Que tiempo aquel
de vida y muerte.
Que tiempo hoy
ELKIN JOSE LARA "UTOPIA"
Each time brings its desire. Of course at this time the sense and maeaning to inhabit humans has distorted in validity for "occupying" and "vacating" a space and, consequenty, only to confuse the construction of the world by erection in ways of room and space, a product of consolidation of the modern project, in contracting the action of inhabiting.
It is unquestionable that trhe narrow relationship of old dates exist among the man with the world, since it is not possible to speak of this one without a horizon that bounds it, without an environment tha allows him to project his dialogue.
Few times the topic of inhabiting has been the same object of territorial planning with chores like the urban architecture and the knowledge of the environment, and environmental ecology in the first place, it corresponds to implement of room for political and concrete actions, under the interpretation of the -to be there- from the one who will be there , their being will have its presents in the relationship to the man who generally settles down in the world in the first place, and in the second place with a specific idea of the interior of the place where man defines his relationship to the world.
In such sense, I will initially concentrate from there on exploring the possible implocations that the lost of sense and meaning of inhabiting has had in the Colombian city of today, whwn it emerges of a severe politician, social and administrative crisis, affecting every time, the people's life-forms and the reasons of the existence of the cities.
The sutiation of crisis somehow give the scense of problems of identity and territorial representativeness that is accompanied under names as: massive community exodus, desolation of places of origin, establishment in coliseums or camps, relocation, situations which necessarily impact on change of the singular and collective imaginary of the Colombian citizen. It leads to the displaced population in particular to question their ownership of a national territory, WHAT MAY WE DREAM AND EXPECT IN A COUNTRY LIKE THIS, WHERE THE NORMS OF THE CITY ARE TOTALLY ABSENT OF THIS POPULATIONAL DYNAMICS?
Undoubtedly this resrtlessness requieres the design of possible alternatives which recompose or re-mean the sense of the Colombian citizen's ownership that actuate questions of collective life as a base to very values and senses different from territory, respect and cooperation of "cultural negotiation" which provide tangible results by the special intelligence of solving location problems, orientation and deprovation of spaces, in order to provide us of a new way of individualization by inhabiting the city.
But these new forms of individualization gives illusion of an underlying affective character in understanding of the relationship it would originate between man and his world starting from the place he/she inhabits. This position is the objecto of the development of this text.
EL AHI DE LOS SERES HUMANOS
The determination, understanding, potential or transformation according to the case, by the way of being for the respective different groups in their "there" is crucial, not only the Territorial Plan but for the authentic room of the world.
The expansion of opposite economic, politics, social, psycologic and cultural bounderies valid for some world context, and therefore already strengthened in our country by traditional opposition and political, social and cultural conflicts in the Colombian citizen's detriment as for: 1) the "scale loss" and the feelings to which it belongs and 2) growing loss of identification with "something", the City doesn't belong to us and therefore it doesn't allow us to recognize ourselves.
A particularity to this mysterious "one" something resides in "being allowed to read", that is to say, of "being made reconocible" and bytrying "aceptable", in this way it produces an apparent lenguage in 1) communication by symbols which give a bill of imagination and expectation for identification which is starting to generate by them and 2) these forms are captured by occupation of the territory on the part of different social groups who make it "his" and it is not in fact because they got hold of property for thesame, but because their personality is manifested in it; this effect the one that grants these two numbers a double interdependent connotation, the physics and de symbolic one.
This way the paper of the "place" (to belong to some group) is the one of to preserve and to consolidate the well read individual and well collective identity through the common patrimony by which it is a piece of fumiture or property, the sense of intimacy and mainly, in the recognition and respect for the diversity and difference. By this way the sense of ownership cannot be an abstraction since the transformation and material adaptation into the environment is not the exclusive competence of the planner, or the politician but of the inhabitant as such, with is the one with whom both first have to interac to design jointly the most convenient strategy in intervention which allows to consolidate and to reinforce the griup-identity, and by this way, build the collective fell surroundings of ownership. With respect to professor Manfred A. Max Neef, maybe influenced in some snese by Schumachen (E.F. 1985-1952 German politician, leader of the democratic social party), he/she wrote:
"The achievement of the functions characteristic to any city: well-being, security, culture and socialility, which depend in essential on the "nature" and quality of the bonds which people setltle down together and with the other elements which constitute the city and its around...".
The frivolity of making (in the daily sense of occupying, to vacate, to produce-building) it has transformed the image of the city into chaos, striking with the forms of ownership, attachment and the man's contingency towards the place ha lives, like part of the establishment process and the identification of the human being with the physical universe and partner cultural (signification) by what moves. Situation that takes place in spaces that -representing the world- they constitute in the first place, their house, their neighborhood, their city and, of course, the own world as such, because it is always this the real scenario which will be first.
"I was born in Bogotá. My brother William too. We were poor and my dad wanted to leave
from here. When we leave Bogotá I was 6 years old (jorge) and William 4. They told us that
we would go to a nice place, with many animals and a big river. It is called San José of the
Guaviare. There we live one year, but I don't remember exactly. We had a nice time, one day
I was almost bitten by a snake and my brother william got sick of grains. It was necessary to
walk carefully because one met with many snakes. What I most liked of San José of
de Guaviare was people.
The ones gave the yucca, some big yuccas and also milk. They gave you everything,
even if they do not know you. It is not as here that everybody is distrusted. William
and I could walk where we want. People although they don't know you give you water
and whatever you want. There is a lot of guerrilla. When they arrived they gave us
things which were not there: cocacola, round maize loaves, tumovers. All that they
sell in the city. Remember William that there was a guerrilla fighter who helped my sick
sister. Okey okey he called himsef Crisostamo. It was nice time.
My dad had a mare, he took care a lot of her and her hair. My mom mounted it and we
mounted it was called "piquiña" because she had lice. Ehen we came we had a lot of
grief to leave the mare. She was like a godfather for us. Then she was sold.
We came because the guerrilla tolds us that they came to fight against the soldiers.
"My dad did not wanted to come and they returned and they told us to flee or die".
A lot of people live there. Then they counted us that the house was burned. Martin,
my dad's friend stayed and also the old Marís who was afraid to the snakes.
In spite of the good times we had, I would not like to return when there is so much
violence and the house they burned "It is a pity, I remember very big Guaviare river
era looking a big sea". It is like the sea although I don't know it but in television, but
it looks the sea, with some big stones, giant!!.
There were not cars, nor commercial centers with a lot of people.
Here they have fabrics and there not. My dad works here in a fabric
of ornamentation and there he sowed..."
THE CONNECTION WITH THE TIMES AND SPACES OF PEOPLE
According to Heidegger, the same man defines his form of being as "being in the-world": I am it means I live and at the same time the important thing is not the existence, but by happening byou unwrap yourself in it and that, however. together with the be-there gives bill of the same road.
This way seves tracing from the movement of experiencing the form optime and the going, since the time is relative being to the movement, would not have anything to count for any, recieve to take, and the space-wich alone is experienced in the measure of some things which abandon their place and leave it "as a hole" or occupied for other-neither it could imagine. The time and space which are given as a result of the movement. This movement it is the one that calls to become o happen, and is deeply demarcated by the sensibility, which believes a luck of being by different possibilities to feel or to be felt. "We only feel the difference and so only the difference of the things it feels". The space is the body of the moviment, as the time it is the sould of the same one.
In this sense, the connection of times and people's spaces is given by the messages that the space sends un through our interpretation andawareness of the sensitive data, which is fiull of sense and perspective points of view, vicinities, distances, and relationships which for our conscience alone make sense, since the being of the consience is time, and, the only thing we cannot take back the space off is looking our own, because without it man would be subject without world", Cartesian spectator wthout show.
This founded deep look of the visible thing and enunciate become possible grace to the historical inheritance which gives place at the same time as it joins individuation which in a new way ties the words and things and that also separates them in a irreversible way from individuation; it is this process the which allows the presence, giving man specea on every ocassion "to open space" to define "a form of being" which we understand as spaciouness "which defines their matter of the forms of being. Such an opening when being is defined as an aproval of encounter-it determines the " "affective tonality" of spacing of the being and it gives account for the own affective way of being.
"I came from Puerto Rico (Caquetá). It is very beautiful there, with a lot of forest,
big trees and a big river which I don't remember the name. Puerto Rico was very
beautiful, was a lot of sun, it was hot. Many many animals "borugas" which
look a little dog...There were many bats to wich pugave bocadillos and the
next day they were not. I was scared of the bats, but later not more because
the animals do not do anything, but rather you put them food, they eat
and they leave. That was very beautiful.
The property whwrw we lived had much livestock, like 200 cows. In a property you,
play, work and helps dad. I caught coffee and he/she went to the town to buy the
it buys. We sold coffee and cheese and we had silver, I liked to have silver to buy
what you/they sold in the town different from it buys it. I gathered coffee and I went to
town to buy groceries. One day we went to San José of the Guaviare, I don not know
the reason. From Caquetá we pass to Guaviare.
What I remember that there was a big tree...we played in the cultivations of corn with
the high branches and we got lost while we played hide o and nobody found us. I
lived very happy there. But one day my uncle Mario arrived and he told us that they
will bomb and take out the whole population. Imagine what it will be like to be to bomb.
So we got away from Guaviare because they will bomb the town. In San José you
could go to the town at any hour they took us to the sporting field and to tale a
bath to the river. There were a lot mounted on bicycle.
For tha reason I don't like Bogotá, there are a lot of cars, like they say a lot of traffic
and cannot cross the streets because they cars kill you.
The being opens the space and therefore its clear possibility, to be in a woeld throught the way of being related with the place in a co-appropiation act, as action to be carried out by means of room like a form of belonging to the man as long as to be in the world. For such a reason, alone as long as we understand the meaning of living as the appropriate way of being in the world, the construction, topic of the architecture and Planing will be possible.
The above-mentioned shows the necessity of having the diverse sciences of living and understanding the deep meaning of housing, of deciphering the signs how man like a "base" to make possible the communication that makes of the man a being language.
Man more than history tums out to be fundamentally in geographical agreement with the author's interpretation of being and time, therefore, knowing man, implicate to decipher the signs of his coming of yes as his being's exposed in a certain form as long as there are forms. Forms which, in tum, develop man by them. And by that make: the construction understood as a charged form of his coming which will give account for this last dimension which expliciet the man's own character like being language, and which is not something else that of the somentioned act, of which the man is deciphered as acting being, as action, event; in other words through the act and in their action.
In such a sense which concems to the architecture and the territorial planning the art of making a city it is planned or not, they show in clear way the different forms of the man's being in the space. In fact no other science is capably in such explicit way of housing humans, and therefore, it is so urgent facing the growing decadence from any other environment and alignment of the living space of which the city is para excellence the affected scenario. Before this situation the planning should be the philosophical guide of the space wich reads and understands and it will contribute to the construction of imaginary, of which the society calculates its signs in a sense it organizes its housing.
CITY, EMERGENCY TERRITORY
Leaving the fact that the residents of the City, which are those that make it and the elements of civilisation our urbanizers applied by the sciences of the housing constitutio according to Foucault a politicas of the individuation, it is important to introduce the force of the life like an action sustantiva of relating the body with the understanding of living.
"I live, it is equal to say I am (el ditchen, the difference), the poetical makes
a bridge which allows proximity which makes of inhabiting a to inhabit which
man takes man to the earth, inhabiting it is a care taker to gu to have the
four dimensions united (the gerviet, quarter), the earth, eaven, divinities,
the humans which make man, proximity are the vicinity of the strange
thing, it is a measure, to measure, but the friend of the house es absent."
Why to live and not simply to be?!
Heidegger, Martin: The change toward the language, of the rehearsal the
essence of the language 1979. Translation of A. Caraciolo, Murcia 1979.
The idea of inhabiting lies in the base of that question that it interrogates and allows to be attentive in the time before a past, always having a horizon which include a future that must come, but of the one that continually makes man return to yes and a present in which one takes a position by the situation in the world, is an utopia by which the Territorial Planing should build to return the human being to the narrow relationship with earth-living.
At the base of this position we recognize the Colombians which we need "to define" assumption of the conflict like headquarters of the life where the capacity of resistance with the power to equalize the difference and the essential undestanding of the pain and the enjoyment is enclosed in the territory; it introduces the force of life in the planning process of the territory which exist of an substancial actionsustantiva to be assumed to test of the human condiction to the limit.
A limit that is demarcated on the planet by the searcely of goodas, private property and the enrichement without limitations has divided the territory, the divide, the suffocates, for the sake of the monetary productivity and the private property. To think in a different way of territory from of the construction of a sustained economy and community it is the most effective way to come closer to the flow that constitutes the mobile characteristic of the earth.
In this sense the planning effect of the territory should be played by a cultural negotiator's paper that transforms those elements civilized or urbanized elements into social qualities from an instruction not only directed to the public opinion without including the art, the culture, etc. as instructive and educational factors of great effect.
We cannot ignore as the new norms and political-ideological demandas, economics, social and of the possible urban existence requiere of a teaching that is characterized by their cientifical and combination of the life on the chore of the Territorial Planning, a planning where the citizen is not constituted as a passive object by accepting norms, but rather it is a subject of the planning as an educational process that is part of our social life.
Our geography in its diverse teritories allows us a proposal of heterogeneous citizenship, it enables another definition of the identity, apparent in its generality in the way of "living the earth".
To this aspect they have been appreciating interesting variations, according to the sociocultural environments of those displaced and displaced (man and woman) who have arrived in areas also populated by afrocolombianos with customs, productive activities and even with a geography and natural environment similar, favorable so the solidarity is expressed more spontaneous and the change is a little less traumatic. This contrasts with the population that f.e arrived in mass in a urban world radically unaware of their traditions, their culture and their natural and geographical environment and that was banished in scenarios sport, provisional and o emergency.
Each human group in displacement situation, as well as the population or reception centers contribute in this forced encounter, their traditions, their culture, their imaginary ones and the shock caused by the war and their sequels in emotional, economical and political order.
It sounds quite paradoxical that appears as a scenario tha feeds a species something quite new in ilvingwhicht the street goes delineating by the discovery of places dissimilar where the distribution orbits and consumption of the urban ludica are located which allows the appearance of the astonishment for a while before the novelty for the one displaced to the City and of the question for the other thing, as a distractor for this actingpopulation. But little by little those will go discovering what all of this, it is not more than the frustrating sensation like a fundamental investment that leaves operating in these social fellows: the actor's change to the spectator and spieitually.
This complex reality of renovation of the exclusion demonstrates the bereavement process of that happened has not been processed. The resistance against the excluding feelings, against the fear to the danger of being recognized as having displaced, against the possibility of feeling different in front of his fellows, is a mechanism that illustrates the fall and abandonment of an identity which disappears for the harassment and the misunderstandung of excluding attitudes.
They area the same people who are convulsed by the effects of a process of violence of consequences which a tipycal, regrettable and painful situation. It seems that isntead of evenings adomed by the hot Cambulos and the shade of the mamones which tradicionally have accompanied the rural lives, they give signs of pain an desolation, which alones is possible capture in the interrupted world of those who have arrived to the City displaced by the ciolence of the rural areas and from some neighborshoods of the City.